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9 things you never knew about condoms

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Condoms have been a staple of sexual health for centuries, providing a barrier method of contraception that protects against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, despite their widespread use, there are many aspects of condoms that remain unknown to the average person. 

1. The History of Condoms

The Ancient Times

The use of condoms dates back to ancient times. The earliest evidence of condom use can be traced back to ancient Egypt, where paintings depict men wearing sheaths over their penises during sexual intercourse. These were likely made from linen or animal intestines. In ancient Rome, condoms were used not only for contraception but also as a protection against disease.

The Renaissance and Beyond

During the Renaissance, the Italian anatomist Gabriello Fallopio documented the first known use of a linen sheath for protection against syphilis. In the 18th and 19th centuries, condoms made from animal intestines were common, but they were expensive and not widely accessible. The invention of vulcanized rubber in the mid-19th century led to the production of rubber condoms, making them more affordable and widely available.

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2. The Manufacturing Process

Material Selection

Modern condoms are typically made from latex or polyurethane. Latex, a natural rubber, is the most common material due to its strength and elasticity. However, for those with latex allergies, polyurethane, a type of plastic, offers a safe alternative. Some condoms are also made from lambskin, which, while effective against pregnancy, does not protect against STIs.

Production and Testing

The production of condoms involves dipping a glass mold into a vat of liquid latex or polyurethane, which then dries into the shape of a condom. Each condom is then electronically tested for holes and defects. Some condoms are also subjected to water leak tests and air burst tests to ensure their strength and reliability.

3. The Science Behind Condom Effectiveness

Protection Against STIs

Condoms provide a physical barrier that prevents the exchange of bodily fluids, thereby reducing the risk of transmitting STIs. They are highly effective against HIV and reduce the risk of other STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. However, they are less effective against STIs that are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV).

Contraceptive Effectiveness

When used correctly, condoms are 98% effective at preventing pregnancy. However, in real-life conditions, their effectiveness is around 85% due to factors such as incorrect use or breakage. It’s important to note that using condoms in conjunction with other forms of contraception can increase their effectiveness.

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4. The Variety of Condoms

Size and Fit

Condoms come in a variety of sizes to ensure a proper fit, which is crucial for both comfort and effectiveness. They range from snug to large sizes, and it’s important to find the right size for you. A condom that is too tight may break, while one that is too loose may slip off.

Texture and Lubrication

Condoms also come in a variety of textures, from smooth to ribbed or studded, to enhance sexual pleasure. Most condoms come pre-lubricated to reduce friction and prevent breakage, but additional lubrication can be used. It’s important to use a water- or silicone-based lubricant, as oil-based lubricants can degrade latex.

5. The Environmental Impact of Condoms


Condoms are designed for single use and should be disposed of properly in a trash bin, not flushed down the toilet. Flushed condoms can cause plumbing issues and end up in waterways, harming wildlife and the environment.

Sustainable Options

For those concerned about the environmental impact of condoms, there are sustainable options available. Some companies produce condoms from sustainably harvested rubber and use eco-friendly manufacturing processes. There are also vegan condoms, which do not use casein, a milk protein typically used in the production of latex condoms.

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6. Condoms Around the World

Usage Rates

Condom usage varies greatly around the world. In some countries, condoms are widely used and easily accessible, while in others, cultural or religious beliefs may discourage their use. Efforts by public health organizations aim to increase condom use worldwide, particularly in areas with high rates of HIV and other STIs.

Condom Distribution Programs

Many countries have condom distribution programs to provide free or low-cost condoms to those who need them. These programs often target high-risk populations and aim to reduce the spread of STIs and prevent unwanted pregnancies. They also provide education on the correct use of condoms.

7. Condoms and the Law

Age Restrictions

In some countries, there are age restrictions on buying condoms. However, in many places, including the United States, there are no age restrictions, and condoms can be purchased by people of any age. This is to encourage safe sex practices among sexually active teenagers.

Condoms in Schools

Some schools provide condoms to students as part of their sexual education programs. This is a controversial issue, with opponents arguing that it encourages sexual activity among teenagers. However, studies have shown that providing condoms in schools does not increase sexual activity but does increase condom use among sexually active students.

Condoms with Expiration Date
Image Credit: Purple Anvil / Shutterstock

8. Condom Myths and Misconceptions

Myths About Effectiveness

There are many myths and misconceptions about condoms, particularly regarding their effectiveness. Some people believe that double-bagging (using two condoms at once) increases protection, but this actually increases the risk of breakage. Another common myth is that condoms reduce sexual pleasure, but many people find that the peace of mind condoms provide enhances their sexual experience.

Myths About Usage

Another common misconception is that condoms need to be used only during vaginal sex. However, condoms should be used during all types of sexual activity, including oral and anal sex, to protect against STIs. It’s also a myth that you don’t need a condom if both partners are STI-free. STIs can be asymptomatic, and regular testing is necessary to ensure you are truly STI-free.

9. The Future of Condoms

Material Innovations

The future of condoms may see innovations in materials. For example, researchers are exploring the use of hydrogel, a material that can self-lubricate and deliver anti-HIV drugs, as a potential condom material. There are also ongoing efforts to develop a female condom that is as effective and easy to use as the male condom.

Design Innovations

Design innovations may also change the way we use condoms. For example, the Origami Condom, currently in development, is a non-rolled, silicone condom designed to mimic the sensation of sex without a condom. Other innovations aim to make condoms easier to put on, more comfortable to wear, or more pleasurable for both partners.

As we continue to prioritize sexual health and safety, condoms will undoubtedly continue to play a crucial role. By understanding their history, manufacturing process, and the science behind their effectiveness, we can better appreciate the importance of this humble yet essential invention.

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